|A complex BGA part has undergone a test with ICT and has failed. The fault is actually an open pin on a control line which prevents the device from functioning according to the ICT model. However, it cannot be precisely diagnosed as such, so the device is removed and discarded. A new device is fitted, all works correctly and the rework sheet is marked with "Faulty BGA part replaced". If the faulty BGA part was boundary scan compliant then a boundary-scan interconnect test would likely have identified the fault as a net "stuck-at 0/1" fault or an "open pin fault" — more accurate but requiring a degree of interpretation before the fix could be applied. However, with JTAG Visualizer the faulting net is easily seen (highlighted in red) and the "fix" could simply be an isolated reflow of the area around the BGA, thus saving the cost of the part and enabling a speedier repair.